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Nikon D3100 Review with Sample Images

Nikon D3100 SLR front view
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October 25th, 2010:
Nikon recently introduced the Nikon D3100 digital SLR, a successor to the popular Nikon D3000 announced last year. While maintaining the same basic characteristics as the Nikon D3000, in being compact and lightweight with a focus on ease of operation, the D3100 SLR offers a range of new features and a number of body design differences compared to the Nikon D3000.

Some of the more notable updates on the Nikon D3100 include; a new higher resolution 14.2 megapixel sensor versus the 10.2 MP sensor in the D3000, a Live View option enabling the LCD monitor to be used to compose your images (like on a point and shoot camera), full HD 1080p movie recording with dedicated auto focus modes and sound recording (D3000 no Live View or movie option), improved ergonomics including a wider and more rounded grip, and new user friendly controls for activating commonly used camera functions.

We have now had the opportunity to review the Nikon D3100 SLR and have included a gallery of Nikon D3100 full size sample images taken with the Nikon AF-S DX Nikkor 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6G VR zoom standard kit lens.

Nikon D3100 Digital SLR Review Menu
  •  D3100: Major Features
  •  D3100: Live View / Movie
  •  D3100 Review: Conclusion
  •  Nikon D3100 SLR: Overview
  •  D3100: Camera Menus
  •  D3100: Sample Images
  •  D3100: Buttons & Controls
  •  D3100 Compared to D3000
  •  Nikon D3100: Specifications

  • Nikon D3100 SLR back view with Guide mode displayed on the LCD

    Nikon D3100 Digital SLR Camera Major Features:

  • 14.2 effective megapixel DX format CMOS image sensor

  • Incorporates Nikon's new image processing engine EXPEED 2

  • Large 3.0-inch LCD monitor with 230,000 dot resolution and brightness adjustment

  • ISO sensitivity range from 100-3200 (expandable to ISO 12800 equivalent)

  • Active D-Lighting automatically balances the exposure between dark and bright areas of the image

  • Picture Control settings allow users to customize the look of the image before taking the picture

  • Guide Mode provides a simple way to explore creative control options, such as Aperture and Shutter Priority exposure modes

  • Choose from a range of user friendly Automatic Scene modes to match the subject (portrait, landscape etc.)

  • With 'Scene Auto Selector' the Nikon D3100 selects the best shooting mode for the scene as recognized by the camera

  • The D3100 features a built-in help guide that explains various features and functions for beginners

  • Full HD 1080p movies (D-movie) can be recorded with sound (up to 10 min clips at a time)

  • One touch movie recording button and dedicated Live view switch for ease of use

  • Features an 11-point AF system with a number of focus options

  • Offers specific autofocus modes for both Live View and during Movie recording to capture moving subjects

  • The Nikon D3100 provides a range of in-camera image and movie editing functions

  • Up to 3 frames per second continuous shooting to help capture the action

  • Supports optional Eye-Fi memory cards allowing for wireless transfer of images and movies

  • New shutter mechanism provides for quiet shooting, even with Live View enabled

  • Incorporates a dust reduction system designed to prevent dust from impacting your photos

  • Comes supplied with a Nikon EN-EL14 rechargeable lithium-ion battery that provides up to 550 shots per charge

  • Nikon D3100 SLR top view

    Nikon D3100 Digital SLR Overview:

    The Nikon D3100 is an SLR that is clearly intended for those that are looking at stepping up from a compact point and shoot type camera to more sophisticated SLR technology, while maintaining the same ease of use. Ideal for family and beginner photographers, the Nikon D3100 incorporates many of the technologies found in higher end Nikon models, while adding some new, and provides plenty of versatility for those that are looking to expand their photographic skills and abilities.

    The Nikon D3100 is designed with a focus on user-friendly operation and offers a number of features that make it easier to take good pictures. The simplicity is extended to the D3100's movie recording function, with the camera's convenient one touch video capture button providing an effortless way to complement your still photos with HD 1080p quality video clips when desired.

    Below is a visual representation of some of the key features found on the Nikon D3100 SLR:

    Nikon D3100 Control Dial with Easy Guide Mode   Nikon D3100 with Dedicated Live View Button
    'Guide Mode' offers in-camera guidance displaying step-by-step how to change camera settings. A new switch is located on the right of the control dial that allows you to quickly select from either Single frame, Continuous, Self timer or Quiet shooting mode
    NEW: a rear switch allows for the display of a 'Live View' of the scene on the camera's 3.0-inch monitor (like on a point and shoot camera where you compose your image while looking at the camera's LCD screen). Push the red button for movie recording
    Nikon D3100 Optical Viewfinder   Nikon D3100 AF Assist Lamp
    As well as offering 'Live View' shooting, the Nikon D3100 provides a traditional optical viewfinder with diopter adjustment
    The D3100 features an AF assist lamp on the front of the camera that improves focusing in low light at closer range
    Nikon D3100 easy to read menu system   The Nikon D3100's help menu is a handy feature
    The menu system is well laid out and presented in a plain language format. Menu's are organized under a series of tabs (in the left column) and include: Playback, Shooting, Set Up, Retouch, and My Menu
    The built-in Help function is a handy feature that makes it easier for beginners to operate the Nikon D3100. Press the Help button [?] while in menu mode and a short description of the highlighted item is displayed
    Nikon D3100 dedicated info button   Nikon D3100 offers a built-in microphone and speaker
    Camera settings can be viewed and adjusted in the information display on the LCD monitor. Press the [<i>] button to view current settings, and again to make changes using the toggle selector surrounding the [OK] button
    The D3100 offers a built-in microphone for recording sound with movies and a speaker is located on the back of the camera. The sound can be turned off using the camera's menu. There is also a volume adjustment available
    The D3100 is compatible with the GP-1 accessory and offers an HDMI output   Nikon EN-EL14 rechargeable battery
    The D3100 is compatible with the Nikon GP-1 GPS geotagging accessory. The camera also features an HDMI connection (cable optional) for high quality playback when attached to an HD monitor or TV
    The Nikon D3100 uses a new Nikon EN-EL14 rechargeable battery. The camera comes supplied with one battery and a charger. The battery provides up to approximately 550 shots per charge (CIPA standard)


    Nikon D3100 Digital SLR: Controls and Buttons

    Nikon D3100 rear buttons and controls

    The Nikon D3100 provides the convenience of a basic 'green' Auto mode for care free point-and-shoot type photography, and there are a total of 12 other automatic and manual shooting modes available. To choose a shooting mode simply select the appropriate setting on the mode dial located on the top of the camera.

    For those that want to take greater creative control, the Nikon D3100 offers the versatility of full Manual (M), Shutter (Tv) and Aperture (Av) priority auto exposure modes. The shutter speed range can be set from 30 - 1/4000 sec and there is a Bulb mode for taking longer exposures.

    You can also choose how the camera meters the scene and sets exposure in P, S, A, and M modes (in other modes, the camera selects the metering method automatically). The Nikon D3100 offers an advanced metering system similar to the one found in the higher end Nikon D90. The available metering options on the D3100 include, Matrix, Center Weighted and Spot metering.

    Matrix metering produces natural results in most situations. The D3100 sets itself apart from the competition in this class of cameras by using its proprietary 420-pixel RGB sensor to meter a wide area of the frame and set exposure according to tone distribution, color, composition, and distance information with type G or D Nikkor lenses.

    Nikon D3100 top buttons and controls

    The Nikon D3100 provides a dedicated exposure compensation button for adjusting exposure (brighten or darken the image). Exposure compensation can be adjusted -5 to + 5 stops in increments of 1/3 EV.

    The D3100 also offers flash exposure compensation which is used to alter flash output from the level suggested by the camera, changing the brightness of the main subject relative to the background. Values can be selected between –3EV (darker) and +1EV (brighter) in increments of 1/3EV.

    The capture settings found on the Nikon D3100's shooting mode dial are outlined below:

    Nikon D3100 Shooting Mode Dial Settings

    The Nikon D3100's Guide Mode offers beginning photographers an easy way to learn how to use the camera to achieve desired results. Advanced Guide Mode even displays sample photos so you'll know what to expect from each setting.

    To use Guide Mode to take a picture or record movies, first set the mode dial on top of the camera to GUIDE and then select "Shoot" from the menu and choose a setting from one of three categories; 'Easy', 'Advanced' or 'Use a Timer / quiet Shutter'. There are a total of 18 help guides found under these categories, which are organized as shown below.

    Easy Operation
    · Auto · Close-ups · Landscapes
    · No flash · Sleeping faces · Portraits
    · Distant subjects · Moving subjects · Night portrait
    Advanced operation
    · Soften backgrounds · Bring more into focus · Freeze motion (people)
    · Show water flowing · Freeze motion (vehicles)
    Use a timer/quiet shutter
    · Single frame · Continuous Shooting · 10-second self-timer
    · Quiet shutter release . .

    When "View / delete" is selected from the top level Guide Mode screen, guides for image playback and deletion are provided. When "Set up" is selected, you can use the camera guide to easily adjust items such as image quality, image size and information background color.

    Below you can see the step by step instructions that are displayed when 'Advanced Operation -soften backgrounds', is selected. This guide shows the user how to take a picture where the background is softened, the type of effect typically desired when shooting portraits. Essentially this is a learning tool on how to use Aperture Priority exposure mode to limit the depth of field in your image.

    Rotate the mode dial to 'GUIDE', and three camera operation categories 'Shoot', 'View/Delete' or camera 'Set Up ' are displayed on the top level menu shown on the LCD screen
    Select the step by step guide for one of the three camera operation options available from the Guide Mode shoot menu, including 'Easy', 'Advanced' or 'Use a timer / quite shutter'
    In "Advanced operation" choose the intended photographic effect you want to achieve. Use the D3100's multi-selector pad to make a selection.
    Once a selection is made a short description is provided explaining how to carry out the operation. Press the OK button to proceed
    Further information and a sample of the type of photo to expect for the selected setting is displayed. Make your adjustments and press OK button
    The Guide mode screen that appears allows you to select 'Start shooting' or access 'More settings' to adjust, for example exposure compensation
    The Guide Mode provides three ways to start shooting. Select from 'Use the viewfinder', the 'live view' on the LCD screen or 'Shoot movies'
    If you select 'use the viewfinder' the LCD screen displays current camera settings. Otherwise, a live view of the scene is shown on the LCD

    Beyond the standard green 'Auto' mode, the Nikon D3100 also offers six user friendly automatic scene modes, which can be selected by rotating the shooting mode dial to the Scene setting that matches the shooting situation and subject. The available Scene modes include: Portrait, Landscape, Child, Sports, Close up, and Night portrait.

    During Live View shooting with the Mode dial on Auto or Auto (flash off), the Nikon D3100's Scene Auto Selector automatically activates Portrait, Landscape, Close up or Night portrait modes depending on the scene as recognized by the camera. For added convenience, an icon appears in the top-left corner of the LCD monitor that shows the selected mode.

    Graphic LCD Display Format
    Classic LCD Display Format

    The Nikon D3100 provides a choice of two LCD information display formats, classic or graphic. Graphic format includes both a numerical and descriptive illustration of shutter speed and aperture settings, making these concepts easier to grasp.

    Both formats display the current Scene Mode using easy-to-understand icons that change as the mode dial is rotated, letting you concentrate on composing your image. There are also three background color variations available for each format.

    See the latest deals and special offers on popular Nikkor lenses:

    Nikon D3100: Live View and Auto Focus System

    One of the major new features found on the Nikon D3100 compared to the D3000, is the addition of a Live View function. The Nikon D3100's Live View feature gives you an intuitive, familiar way to photograph playful pets or children on the move by composing and following your subject on the camera's LCD monitor. Just flip the D3100's Live View switch located on the back of the camera and you're ready to go.

    Nikon D3100 Live View Feature

    The above screen grab shows the information that is overlaid on top of the live image displayed on the camera's LCD monitor when the D3100 is set to Live View mode. Key shooting mode settings can be viewed at a glance, and a focus area box is displayed that turns green once focus is achieved.

    Nikon D3100 offers 11-point Auto Focus

    The auto focus system on the Nikon D3100 provides a choice of 11 focus points, allowing you to compose photographs with the main subject almost anywhere in the frame. The camera offers three focus modes including single-servo AF (AF-S) where the camera focuses once and stays locked, full time-servo AF (AF-F) where the camera continuously focuses until the shot is taken, and manual focus (MF).

    When using the viewfinder to compose your images, the Nikon D3100 provides four AF-area modes to handle most shooting situations. Four other AF-area modes are specifically dedicated for using Live View or capturing movies.

    The menu options for selecting the AF-area mode when you are using the viewfinder or the ones for when you are using Live view or capturing movies are shown below:

    Nikon D3100 AF-Area Mode Viewfinder   Available Af-area modes for using Live View or shooting movies
    AF-area Modes: Using Viewfinder
    AF Area Modes: Live View or Movie

    When using the D3100's optical viewfinder to frame your subject the available AF-area modes include:

  • Single-point AF: User selects focus point using multi selector and the camera focuses only on subject in selected focus point. Use with stationary subjects.

  • Dynamic-area AF: User selects focus point manually, although the camera focuses based on information from surrounding focus points if the subject briefly leaves the selected point. Ideal for erratically moving subjects.

  • Auto-Area AF: The Nikon D3100 automatically detects the subject and selects the appropriate focus point.

  • 3D-tracking (11 points): Select the focus point using the camera's multi selector pad. If the subject moves after the camera has focused, while the shutter-release button is pressed halfway the D3100 uses 3D-tracking to select a new focus point in order to keep the focus locked on the original subject .
  • The AF-area modes that are available when using the LCD monitor to compose your image with Live View or when recording movies include:

  • Face-priority AF: The camera can recognize up to 35 faces at a time then focus on the face that is determined to be nearest. Even if people in the frame move, the camera continues tracking and focusing.

  • Wide-area AF: A good choice for a variety of subjects, both moving and stationary. It is especially suited for handheld shooting.

  • Normal Area: Offers better precision when focusing on a small area - ideal when using a tripod.

  • Subject-tracking AF: Select a focus point that covers the subject you want to keep in focus by using the multi selector surrounding the OK button. If the subject moves after focus is achieved, the camera uses 3D-AF tracking to select new active focus points as required in order to keep focus locked on the original subject.
  • Even if the subject leaves the frame momentarily, when it reenters the frame you simply press the shutter release button halfway and the camera will start tracking the subject once again. A useful feature for photographing active children and pets.

    Nikon D3100: Scene Recognition System

    Nikon D3100 Scene Recognition System

    First introduced on the professional Nikon D3 and D300 digital SLR camera's, Nikon’s exclusive Scene Recognition System is also featured in the D3100.

    This unique technology utilizes the camera's 420-pixel RGB sensor to analyze scene and color information in order to understand what the camera is about to shoot. Milliseconds before the shutter is released, the camera optimizes the autofocus, auto exposure, i-TTL flash control (if applicable) and white balance, without the user having to make more complicated camera adjustments.

    The D3100's Face detection technology also benefits from the camera's Scene Recognition System, providing improved recognition accuracy as well as enabling instant zoom-to-face in playback mode. When Face detection is selected in Live View mode, a yellow focus area box is displayed surrounding the faces that are detected in the scene.

    Once you press the shutter release button halfway the camera focuses and selects a primary Face to make adjustments for. When focus is achieved the focus area box changes to a green outline colour .

    Nikon D3100 Face Recognition AF

    Nikon D3100: Full 1080p HD Movie Recording with Sound

    The Nikon D3100 is the first Nikon entry level SLR to offer full 1080p HD movie recording at 24 fps with sound. A dedicated movie record button allows for quick and easy access to capturing movies. The camera will record up to 10 min of video per clip. The available options for setting movie recording quality on the D3100 are shown below:

    Movie size (pixels)
    Frame rate
    Maximum recording time
    1,920 x 1080 (Full HD)
    24p (23.976fps)
    10 min
    1,280 x 720 (HD)
    30p (29.97fps)
    10 min
    1,280 x 720 (HD)
    25p (25fps)
    10 min
    1,280 x 720 (HD)
    24p (23.976fps)
    10 min
    640 x 424 (SD)
    24p (23.976fps)
    10 min

    The D3100 also offers simple in-camera movie editing options like trimming scenes before or after a designated point and the ability to extract still images. HDMI compatibility lets you connect the Nikon D3100 to an HD monitor or TV for viewing or playback.

    Nikon D3100 SLR with auto pop-up flash

    The Nikon D3100 features a built-in pop-up flash that provides coverage for taking pictures at closer range. When the light gets low or you find yourself shooting in tricky backlit lighting, use the built-in pop-up flash to brighten the scene. It activates automatically when needed depending on the shooting mode, or it can be enabled manually.

    The built-in flash modes available on the D3100 vary with the selected shooting mode. In Program and Aperture Priority mode, the following built-in flash modes can be selected: Fill flash, Red-eye reduction, Slow sync + redeye reduction, slow sync, Rear curtain + slow sync. In Auto exposure mode the camera offers: Auto, Auto with Redeye reduction and Off.

    When taking pictures in larger room interiors or from further away, the Nikon D3100 also offers a dedicated hotshoe which allows for the attachment of an optional Nikon external Speedlite flash unit, like the newly announced Nikon SB-700.

    Using an external Speedlite also provides for more versatile flash photography like being able to use filters and the option of bouncing the flash of a ceiling or wall for added creativity or a more natural and softer look to images.

    Nikon D3100 Digital SLR: Menu System

    Frequently used settings can be viewed and adjusted in the Nikon D3100's information display. Press the button once to view settings, and again to make changes. This feature effectively acts as a quick menu for changing common camera settings including; Image Quality and Size, White Balance, ISO, AF Mode, AF Area, Metering, Active D-Lighting, Movie Quality, Exposure Compensation and Flash Exposure Compensation.

    Simply highlight items by using the camera's multi selector pad and then press the button to view the available options for the highlighted item.

    Nikon D3100 Quick Menu

    The main menu system on the Nikon D3100 is organized under a series of tabs that are displayed on the LCD monitor when you push the dedicated 'Menu' button located on the back of the camera.

    The 5 menu tabs found on the D3100 include the following; Playback Menu, Shooting Menu, Setup Menu, Retouch Menu, and the Recent Settings Menu.

    The camera settings that can be adjusted by using the D3100's main menu system are outlined below:

    Reset shooting options: Select Yes to reset shooting menu settings
    Set Picture Control: The camera offers six Picture Controls which allow the user to customize the look of the final image. In P, S, A, and M modes, you can choose a Picture Control according to the subject or type of scene (in other modes, the camera selects a Picture Control automatically). Options include: Standard, Neutral, Vivid, Monochrome, Portrait, or Landscape. Each setting can be tweaked in-camera
    Image Quality: Select from NEF / RAW + JPEG fine, NEF / RAW, JPEG fine, JPEG normal, or JPEG basic
    Image Size: Large 4,608 × 3,072 pixels, Medium 3,456 × 2,304 pixels, Small 2,304 × 1,536 pixels
    White Balance: Options include: Auto, Incandescent, Fluorescent, Direct sunlight, Flash, Cloudy, Shade, Preset manual. Each setting can be tweaked to personal liking
    ISO sensitivity settings: Auto ISO: camera selects ISO as required. Manual 100-3200 ISO selectable, and ISO boost Hi1 (6400 ISO) and Hi2 (12,800 ISO)
    Active D-Lighting: When 'On' is selected, the camera automatically adjusts Active D-Lighting during shooting to preserve details in highlights and shadows. Use for high contrast scenes, for example when photographing brightly lit outdoor scenery. Default is On.
    Auto Distortion Control: Select On to reduce barrel distortion when shooting with wide-angle lenses and to reduce pin-cushion distortion when shooting with long lenses. Default is Off
    Color Space: The color space determines the gamut of colors available for color reproduction. Choose sRGB for photographs that will be printed or used “as is,” with no further modification. Adobe RGB has a wider color gamut and is recommended for images that will be extensively processed or retouched after leaving the camera.
    Noise Reduction: Select On to reduce noise (randomly-spaced bright pixels, lines, or fog), particularly in photographs taken at high ISO sensitivities or shutter speeds slower than 8 sec
    AF- Area Mode: Four Modes each for using viewfinder or using Live View and shooting movies. Using viewfinder to compose: (1) Single-point AF, (2) Dynamic-Area AF, (3) Auto Area AF, (4) 3D-tracking (11 points).

    Using Live View or shooting movies: (1) Face Priority AF, (2) Wide-area AF, Normal-area AF, (4) Subject-tracking AF
    AF-Assist: Select On to activate built-in AF assist illuminator which helps the camera focus in low light (emits bright light from lamp on front of camera)
    Metering: Select from 3D Matrix using 420-segment sensor, Center Weighted or Spot. Default set to matrix metering
    Movie Settings: Select from 1920 1080 at 24fps, 1280 720 at 30fps, 1280 720 at 25fps, 1280 720 at 24fps or 640 424 at 24fps
    Built-in Flash: TTL (default): Flash output is adjusted automatically in response to shooting conditions.

    Manual: Choose a flash level between Full and 1/32 (1/32 of full power). At full power, the built-in flash has a Guide Number of 13

    The Nikon D3100 offers an Auto ISO setting (default) where the camera sets the ISO speed as required, or you can select ISO manually from a range of 100 to 3200 ISO in steps equivalent to 1EV.

    ISO sensitivity can be raised above ISO 3200 by about 1EV (Hi1, equivalent to ISO 6400) or 2EV (Hi2, equivalent to ISO 12800) for use as required.

    The Nikon D3100 offers ISO sensitivity settings from 100 - 3200 ISO. Two ISO boost settings are available Hi-1 and Hi-2 (6400 and 12800 ISO)
    In Auto ISO the camera varies the ISO as required depending on the scene. The maximum ISO and the minimum shutter speed can be set

    White balance (WB) ensures that colors are unaffected by the color of the original light source. Auto white balance is recommended for most situations. In P, S, A, and M modes, other WB values can be selected according to the type of light source if desired.

    According to Nikon, the improved Scene Recognition system found in the Nikon D3100 provides auto white balance performance that nearly rivals the precision of the D3s, Nikon's flagship camera.

    Nikon D3100 White Balance Settings   Nikon D3100 White Balance Manual Adjustment
    White Balance settings on the Nikon D3100 include; Auto, Incandescent, Fluorescent, Direct Sunlight, Flash, Cloudy, and Shade and manual
    For more advanced users the D3100 allows for white balance tweaking in the Amber - Blue and Green - Magenta range for each WB setting

    There is also a manual preset White Balance setting available that allows you to take a WB reading of a white card or other object under the given light source. Using manual white balance preset ensures even greater precision in rendering the correct white balance under difficult lighting situations.

    Reset shooting options: Reset setup menu settings to default values
    Format memory card: Format the current memory card inserted in the camera (deletes all images)
    LCD brightness: The brightness of the LCD monitor can be adjusted in 6 steps
    Info display format: Select the type of info display format 'Graphic' or 'Classic' and a corresponding background color from three options
    Auto info display: If On is selected, the information display will appear after the shutter-release button is pressed halfway; if image review is off, it will also be displayed immediately after shooting.
    Clean image sensor: Activate built-in sensor cleaning mechanism. Can be set to auto sensor cleaning at startup or when the camera shuts down
    Mirror lockup: Raise camera mirror to perform manual sensor cleaning if required
    Video mode: Select NTSC or PAL depending on the broadcast standard in your country (for connecting the camera to a TV)
    HDMI: Choose the format for images output to the HDMI device. If Auto is selected, the camera will automatically select the appropriate format.
    Flicker reduction: Reduce flicker and banding when shooting under fluorescent or mercury-vapor
    lighting during live view or movie recording.
    Time zone and date: Change time zones, set the camera clock, choose the date display order, and turn daylight saving time on or off.
    Language: Choose a language for camera menus and messages. The following options are
    available: Czech, Danish, German, English, Spanish, French, Indonesian, Italian, Dutch, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Finnish, Swedish, Turkish, Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Japanese, Korean
    Image Comment : Add a comment to new photographs as they are taken.
    Auto image rotation: Photographs taken while On is selected contain information on camera orientation, allowing them to be rotated automatically during playback
    Dust Off ref photo: Acquire reference data for the Image Dust Off option in CaptureNX2 (available
    separately; for more information, see the CaptureNX2 manual).
    Auto off timers: This option determines how long the monitor remains on if no operations are performed during menu display and playback, while photographs are displayed in the monitor after shooting, and during live view, and how long the exposure meters, viewfinder, and information display remain on when no operations are performed.
    Self-timer delay: Choose the length of the shutter release delay in self-timer mode (2 sec or 10 sec delay)
    Beep: If On is selected, a beep will sound when the camera focuses
    Rangefinder: Choose On to use the exposure indicator to determine whether the camera is correctly focused in manual focus mode
    File number sequence: When a photograph is taken, the camera names the file by adding one to the last file number used. This option controls whether file numbering continues from the last number used when a new folder is created, the memory card is formatted, or a new memory card is inserted in the camera.
    Buttons: Choose the roles played by the Fn and AE-L/AF-L buttons.
    Slot empty release lock: If Release locked is selected, the shutter-release button is only enabled when a
    memory card is inserted in the camera.
    Date imprint : Choose the date information imprinted on photographs as they are taken.
    Storage folder: Create, rename, or delete folders, or choose the folder in which subsequent
    photographs will be stored.
    GPs: Activated when used with GP-1 GPs accessory unit
    Firmware version: View the current camera firmware version.

    Nikon D3100: Playback Menu

    To playback an image on the Nikon D3100 simply press the playback button located on the top left side on the back of the camera. By pressing the zoom-out button you can also view pictures in thumbnail groups of 4, 9, or 72. To view images taken on a selected date, press the zoom-out button once again when 72 images are

    Pressing the zoom-in button allows you to magnify the image on the display screen allowing for checking of finer detail (focus confirmation, did a person blink? etc.)

    The Nikon D3100 also offers a slide show feature which allows you to playback a slide show of your images in the order in which they where taken. It is possible to adjust for slideshow display timings and transition effects as well.

    Delete: Select to delete a single image, a series of images or all images on the card
    Playback folder: Choose folder to playback images from
    Display mode: Choose the information available in the playback photo information display
    and the transition between frames during playback. Under detailed photo info you can select to have the camera display Highlights, RGB histogram or expanded shooting data
    Image Review: Choose whether pictures are automatically displayed in the monitor immediately after shooting
    Rotate tall: Select whether to rotate “tall” (portrait-orientation) pictures for display during playback
    Slide show: The Slide show option in the playback menu is used to display a slide show of the
    pictures in the current playback folder. You can select the frame interval and different transition effects
    Print set (DPOF): The Print set (DPOF) option in the playback menu is used to create digital “print
    orders” for PictBridge-compatible printers and devices that support DPOF

    Selecting 'Display mode' in the above menu lets you control how you view shooting information in playback mode on the D3100.

    When playing back an image on the D3100, in order to be able to view extended data such as image 'Histogram' and detailed shooting information, you have to first activate the desired features using the 'Display mode' settings in the camera's playback menu. The default setting on the camera is to provide more simplified shooting information.

    Nikon D3100 Full Image Display   Nikon D3100 Display Mode Menu
    Full size image as displayed in playback mode with basic standard shooting information
    Use the 'Display Mode' setting in the Playback menu to activate 'Detailed Photo Info' options
    D3100 Histogram Display  
    Histogram shooting information display (RGB Histogram can also be shown)
    Detailed shooting information display for the current image (first screen)
    Nikon D3100 Information Display  
    Nikon D3100 Highlight Display
    Detailed shooting information display for the current Playback image. Second screen shown
    Nikon D3100 with Highlight area display. Highlights blink allowing for easier exposure adjustments

    Nikon D3100 SLR: In-Camera Retouch Menu

    The Nikon D3100 offers a wide range of built-in image and movie editing functions. Operations like Redeye correction, Quick retouch, and applying Filters can be done in-camera via the 'Retouch Menu', minimizing the need of having to use a computer and software to achieve these effects. You can also extract still images from movies and trim unnecessary frames.

    The options available in the Nikon D3100's 'Retouch Menu' are shown below.

    D-Lighting: D-Lighting brightens shadows, making it ideal for dark or backlit photographs. Select from Low, Normal or High D-Lighting
    Redeye correction: This option is used to correct “redeye” caused by the flash, and is available only with photographs taken using the flash
    Trim: Create a cropped copy of the selected image
    Monochrome: Copy photographs in Black-and-white, Sepia, or Cyanotype (blue and white monochrome)
    Filter effects: Choose from the following filter effects: Skylight, Warm filter. Red intensifier, Green intensifier, Blue intensifier, Cross screen, Soft
    Color balance: Use the multi selector to create a copy with modified color balance
    Small picture: Create small copies of pictures. Image sizes include: 640 x 480, 320 x 240 and 160 x 120
    Image overlay: Image overlay combines two existing NEF (RAW) photographs to create a single
    picture that is saved separately from the originals
    NEF / RAW processing: Create JPEG copies of NEF (RAW) photographs. Adjust image quality, image size, white balance, exposure compensation, and picture control to a different setting
    Quick retouch: Create copies with enhanced saturation and contrast. D-Lighting is applied as required to brighten dark or backlit subjects.
    Straighten: Create a straightened copy of the selected image
    Distortion control: Create copies with reduced peripheral distortion. Select Auto to let the camera correct distortion automatically and then make fine adjustments using the multi selector, or select Manual to reduce distortion manually
    Fisheye: Create a copy of the original image that appears to have been taken with a fisheye lens
    Color outline: Create an outline copy of a photograph to use as a base for painting
    Perspective control: Create a copy of the original image that reduces the effects of perspective taken from the base of a tall object
    Miniture effect: Create a copy that appears to be a photo of a diorama. Works best with photos taken
    from a high vantage point
    Edit movie: Trim footage to create edited copies of movies or save selected frames as JPEG stills

    The 'Active D-Lighting' option found in the shooting menu adjusts exposure before shooting to optimize the dynamic range (preserve detail in both bright and shadow areas), while the 'D-Lighting' option found in the camera's retouch menu optimizes dynamic range in images after shooting.

    The two sample shots below show the effect of using 'D-Lighting' on an image that suffers from fairly dark shadow detail. After in-camera retouching with 'D-Lighting' is applied the new image is saved as a separate file keeping the original version intact. The Nikon D3100 provides three levels of 'D-Lighting' (Low, Normal and High).

    Nikon D3100 Sample Image
    Nikon D3100 Image as Captured
    Nikon D3100 Sample Image Retouched with D-Lighting Effect
    Retouched Using D-Lighting Option

    With the Nikon D3100 it is possible to apply multiple retouch effects in separate steps. The sample images below show the results of combining in-camera retouching for 'Colour Balance'', Cross Screen Filter' and finally 'Trim'.

    The first image is the original picture as captured. The second sample represents applying 'Colour Balance' retouching to the original (creates a new image saved on its own). The third image shows the result of applying a 'Cross Screen' retouch filter to the image file that was saved in step 2. The fourth picture is a result of using the camera's 'Trim' retouch feature on the image that was saved in step 3, and shows the effect after all three retouch options have been added to the original image.

    Nikon D3100 original sample image
    (1) Nikon D3100 Original Image
    D3100 sample image retouched with colour balance filter effect
    (2) Colour Balance Filter Effect (saved as new file)
    Nikon D3100 retouched image with Cross filter effect
    (3) Cross Filter applied to previous retouched image
    Nikon D3100 retouched image cropped in camera
    (4) In-camera crop applied to image saved in step #3

    In order to help prevent in-camera dust from affecting images, the Nikon D3100 is equipped with Nikon's Integrated Dust Reduction System. This solution includes a special Airflow Control System that redirects dust away from the low-pass filter located in front of the image sensor. Furthermore, when powering the camera on or off, the filter automatically vibrates to release image-degrading dust that may adhere to it.

    Nikon D3100 side view

    On the side of the Nikon D3100 you will find the camera's connections tucked away behind a rubber hinged door. The connections include, a USB interface plug for downloading files to a computer, an HDMI cable connection (cable optional) for HD quality output, and a standard A/V out plug which can be used to connect the camera to a larger monitor or TV.

    The Nikon D3100 offers support for the Nikon GP-1 GPS accessory unit, which provides a “Geotagging” feature when connected to the camera. By tagging your photos with geotags you won't be left wondering at a later date "Where was that picture taken?"

    Nikon D3100 with GP-1 Accessory Unit

    The Nikon GP1 works by receiving signals from a number of satellites in space. Through triangulation, the camera will “know” where it is on the surface of the Earth and record the latitude and longitude and altitude in the meta data on pictures. Once the GPs data is stored, images can be plotted on a map in Nikon View NX2 software or on-line at, as well as many other programs and web sites.

    The Nikon D3100 comes supplied with a newly designed EN-EL14 rechargeable Li-ion battery which delivers up to approximately 550 frames on a single charge. A Nikon MH-24 battery charger is also supplied with the camera.

    The Nikon D3100 does not offer compatibilty with an optional vertical release battery grip like some competitor's models or higher end Nikon SLR camera's like the Nikon D7000 or Nikon D90.

    Nikon D3100 EN-EL14 Li-Ion rechargeable battery and MH-24 charger

    The camera can also be used with an accessory EH-5a AC adapter combined with the optional Nikon EP-5 power connector.

    The Nikon D3100 uses SD (Secure Digital), SDHC and SDXC memory cards. Cards with class 6 write speeds are recommended for movie recording. Recording may end unexpectedly when cards with slower write speeds are used.

    Nikon AF-S Nikkor DX 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6G VR Zoom Kit Lens

    The Nikon AF-S Nikkor DX 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6G VR zoom standard kit lens that comes supplied with the Nikon D3100 offers good image quality, up to 3 stops vibration reduction to assist handheld shooting in low light, and incorporates an AF-S motor for quieter focusing.

    With respect to standard kit lenses the Nikon AF-S 18-55mm VR is one of the best options available. The Nikon AF-S DX 55-200mm VR or the new AF-S DX 55-300mm VR are two optional lenses that offer extended telephoto range and serve as a nice complement to the AF-S DX 18-55mm VR.

    Nikon D3100 SLR compared to the Nikon D3000: Layout and Design

    Nikon D3100 versus D3000 front view

    Nikon D3100 with AF-S DX 18-55mm VR Zoom
    Nikon D3000 with AF-S DX 18-55mm VR Zoom

    Comparing the Nikon D3100 from the front with the Nikon D3000 side by side, it can be seen that the two cameras share many similarities in design, although there are some notable differences attributed to the upgraded D3100.

    The D3100 offers a wider and rounder hand grip, and the new release mode switch surrounding the shooting mode dial is a handy addition. The shooting mode dial is taller on the D3100 making it easier to turn to adjust settings. The D3100's microphone for recording sound with movies is also visible on the right side of the camera. The D3000 does not offer HD movie recording ability like the D3100.

    Nikon D3100 versus D3000 top view controls

    Nikon D3100 SLR Top Control Layout
    Nikon D3000 SLR Top Control Layout

    The differences between the Nikon D3100 and the Nikon D3000 are more noticeable from the top. Apart from the differences in the grip, the info and exposure compensation buttons on the D3100 have been realigned at an angle making them more natural to reach.

    The main control thumb wheel located on the top right on the back of both camera's is larger on the D3100 making it a little easier to scroll and change settings. Again, an obvious difference is the new release mode switch found on the Nikon D3100 which offers a faster and more convenient way to change continuous shooting settings, or activating the Self-timer or Quiet shutter operation modes.

    Nikon D3100 compared to the D3000 back view

    Nikon D3100 back view
    Nikon D3000 back view

    Comparing the back of the Nikon D3100 versus the D3000 there are quite a few differences to be seen. The buttons found on the back left of the D3100 have been moved around to make room for the addition of the new button, and are now raised by being nestled in a groove making them easier to push.

    The new Live View switch and one-touch movie record button on the Nikon D3100 also stand out, as well as the more padded thumb rest found on the rear top right of the camera under the main control wheel.

    The main body portion of the D3100 is also a little taller compared to the Nikon D3000, and the AE-L / AF-L button on the D3100 is redesigned and located a little further from the thumb control wheel than on the Nikon D3000.

    Nikon D3100 SLR connections
    Nikon D3000 connections

    Nikon D3100 SLR Connections Side
    Nikon D3000 SLR Connections Side

    Viewing the two camera's from the connections port side there are some major changes in the Nikon D3100 versus the D3000. The Nikon D3100 now offers connections for the optional Nikon GP-1 GPs accessory unit, a new A/V plug and an HDMI output, features which are not found on the D3000.

    It is clearer to see how the main rear buttons on the D3100 have been raised so they now protrude and are easier to push versus the buttons located in the same area on the Nikon D3000. The programmable function (Fn) button on the Nikon D3100 also no longer doubles as the Self-timer button like on the D3000.

    Nikon D3100 SLR Review: Conclusion

    The Nikon D3100 offers some notable improvements compared to the earlier released Nikon D3000, both from a feature point of view and an ergonomic standpoint. The D3100's 14.2 megapixel (MP) sensor offers increased resolution compared to the 10.2 megapixel sensor in the D3000, allowing for more latitude in cropping into an image and even larger file sizes to print from.

    While the D3100 certainly delivers in terms of image quality, we question the need for the extra pixels being added. For most entry level users a camera that offers 10.2 MP will provide sufficient resolution to meet their requirements. In reality, Nikon's decision to update the sensor in the D3100 is more likely based on a marketing objective to match or surpass the sensor specifications of competitors products in the same class.

    The high ISO capabilities of the Nikon D3100 are very good, with the ISO 3200 setting delivering some impressive results, as can be seen in our D3100 sample image gallery. When needed the Hi1 (ISO 6400) and the Hi2 (ISO 12800) ISO boost settings deliver in our opinion very decent image quality for regular sized prints and online use. For capturing subjects like school plays, indoor sports, and dimly lit room interiors, the Nikon D3100 is a worthy consideration.

    The Live view and HD movie recording abilities found in the Nikon D3100 are definitely a welcome addition versus the D3000, although these features have now almost become a standard on new SLR camera's appearing on the market. That being said the D3100's user friendly Live view switch and one touch movie recording button make these features simple to take advantage of when using the camera.

    Where the Nikon D3100 sets itself apart from the direct competition is by incorporating many of the exclusive technologies found in higher end Nikon SLR camera's, including;

    • A class leading 420-segment RGB 3D Matrix metering system for consistent well balanced exposures
    • Nikon's proprietary image-processing and high ISO noise reduction technologies
    • Active D-Lighting to ensure that highlight and shadow detail is maintained across the frame
    • Nikon's Scene Recognition System which delivers improvements in a number of image quality areas such as Auto white balance and Auto Focus acquisition
    • An extensive in-camera Retouch menu allowing for simple image adjustments without having to use a computer
    • Above par flash exposure metering combined with compatibility with the Nikon Creative Lighting system for accurate flash photography

    What we really like about the Nikon D3100 is that the button and the control layout of the camera is uncluttered with Nikon's engineer putting a lot of thought into usability and ergonomics, a philosophy that most other manufacturer's have not been as eager to adopt with respect to their SLR camera models.

    Another nice feature is that the menu system on the Nikon D3100 is laid out in a plain language format, and the camera's help guide acts as a mini built-in instruction book to assist beginning photographers to get more familiar with the camera's operation and features.

    Although the D3100's LCD screen is fairly average at 230,000 pixel resolution, it serves to get the job done. A wide viewing angle and brightness adjustment settings make the LCD screen acceptable for this class of camera.

    Overall we were very pleased with the field performance of the Nikon D3100 in our tests, and have no hesitation in recommending the camera as a great family, travel SLR. With user-friendly operation the camera can be picked up right away and used in a point and shoot capacity delivering pleasing results.

    For those wanting to learn more or with greater photographic experience there is plenty to explore and make use of in terms of taking creative control with the advanced features that are built into the Nikon D3100.

    If you are looking to buy the Nikon D3100 SLR in the US we recommend Amazon

    Nikon D3100 SLR Image Sample Gallery

    Nikon D3100 Digital SLR Specifications
    Single-lens reflex digital camera
    Lens mount
    Nikon F mount (with AF contacts)
    Effective angle of view
    Approx. 1.5 x lens focal length (Nikon DX format)
    Effective pixels
    14.2 million
    Image sensor
    23.1 x 15.4 mm CMOS sensor
    Total pixels
    14.8 million
    LCD monitor
    3-inch with 230,000 dot resolution, brightness adjustment available
    Dust-reduction system
    Image sensor cleaning, Airflow Control System, Image Dust Off reference data (optional Capture NX 2 software required)
    Image size (pixels)
    4,608 x 3,072 [L] 3,456 x 2,304 [M] 2,304 x 1,536 [S]
    File format
    NEF (RAW)
    JPEG: JPEG-Baseline compliant with fine (approx. 1:4), normal (approx. 1:8), or basic (approx. 1:16) compression
    NEF (RAW) + JPEG: Single photograph recorded in both NEF (RAW) and JPEG formats
    Picture Control System
    Standard, Neutral, Vivid, Monochrome, Portrait, Landscape; selected Picture Control can be modified
    SD (Secure Digital), SDHC and SDXC memory cards
    File system
    DCF (Design Rule for Camera File System) 2.0, DPOF (Digital Print Order Format), Exif 2.21 (Exchangeable Image File Format for Digital Still Cameras), PictBridge
    Eye-level pentamirror single-lens reflex viewfinder
    Frame coverage
    Approx. 95% horizontal and 95% vertical
    Viewfinder Magnification
    Approx. 0.8 x (50 mm f/1.4 lens at infinity, -1.0 m-1)
    18 mm (-1.0 m-1)
    Diopter adjustment
    -1.7 to +0.5 m-1
    Focusing screen
    Type B BriteView Clear Matte Mark VII screen
    Reflex mirror
    Quick return
    Lens aperture
    Instant return, electronically controlled
    Compatible lenses
    AF-S and AF-I: All functions supported.
    Type G or D AF NIKKOR without built-in autofocus motor: All functions except autofocus supported. IX NIKKOR lenses not supported.
    Other AF NIKKOR: All functions supported except autofocus and 3D color matrix metering II. Lenses for F3AF not supported.
    Type D PC NIKKOR: All functions supported except autofocus and some shooting modes.
    AI-P NIKKOR: All functions supported except autofocus and 3D color matrix metering II.
    Non-CPU: Autofocus not supported. Can be used in exposure mode M, but exposure meter does not function.
    Note: Electronic rangefinder can be used if lens has a maximum aperture of f/5.6 or faster.
    Shutter Type
    Electronically controlled vertical-travel focal-plane shutter
    Shutter Speed
    1/4000 to 30 s in steps of 1/3 EV, Bulb
    Flash sync speed
    X=1/200 s; synchronizes with shutter at 1/200 s or slower
    Release mode
    Single frame), Continuous), Self-timer, Quiet shutter release
    Frame advance rate
    Up to 3 fps (manual focus, mode M or S, shutter speed 1/250 s or faster, and other settings at default values)
    2 s, 10 s
    Exposure Metering
    TTL exposure metering using 420-pixel RGB sensor
    Metering method
    Matrix: 3D color matrix metering II (type G and D lenses); color matrix metering II (other CPU lenses)
    Center-weighted: Weight of 75% given to 8-mm circle in center of frame
    Spot: Meters 3.5-mm circle (about 2.5% of frame) centered on selected focus point
    (ISO 100, f/1.4 lens, 20°C/68°F)
    Matrix or center-weighted metering: 0 to 20 EV
    Spot metering: 2 to 20 EV
    Exposure meter coupling
    Exposure modes
    Auto modes (auto, auto [flash off]); scene modes (portrait; landscape; child; sports; close up; night portrait);
    programmed auto with flexible program (P); shutter-priority auto (S); aperture-priority auto (A); manual (M)
    Exposure compensation
    -5 to +5 EV in increments of 1/3 EV
    Exposure lock
    Luminosity locked at detected value with AE-L/AF-L button
    ISO sensitivity
    (Recommended Exposure Index)
    ISO 100 to 3200 in steps of 1 EV; can also be set to approx. 1 EV above ISO 3200 (ISO 6400 equivalent) or to
    approx. 2 EV above ISO 3200 (ISO 12800 equivalent); auto ISO sensitivity control available
    Active D-Lighting
    On, Off
    Nikon Multi-CAM 1000 autofocus sensor module with TTL phase detection, 11 focus points (including one
    cross-type sensor), and AF-assist illuminator (range approx. 0.5 to 3m/1 ft. 8 in. to 9 ft. 10 in.)
    AF Detection range
    -1 to +19 EV (ISO 100, 20°C/68°F)
    Lens servo
    Autofocus (AF): Single-servo AF (AF-S); continuous-servo AF (AF-C); auto AF-S/AF-C selection (AF-A); predictive focus tracking activated automatically according to subject status
    Manual focus (MF): Electronic rangefinder can be used
    Focus point
    Can be selected from 11 focus points
    AF-area mode
    Single-point AF, dynamic-area AF, auto-area AF, 3D-tracking (11 points)
    Focus lock
    Focus can be locked by pressing shutter-release button halfway (single-servo AF) or by pressing AE-L/AF-L button
    Built-in flash
    Auto, Portrait, Child, Close up, Night portrait: Auto flash with auto pop-up
    P, S, A, M: Manual pop-up with button release
    Guide number
    Approx. 12/39, 13/43 with manual flash (m/ft, ISO 100, 20°C/68°F)
    Flash control
    TTL: i-TTL balanced fill-flash and standard i-TTL flash for digital SLR using 420-pixel RGB sensor are available with built-in flash and SB-900, SB-800, SB-600, or SB-400 (i-TTL balanced fill-flash is available when matrix or center-weighted metering is selected)
    Auto aperture: Available with SB-900/SB-800 and CPU lens
    Non-TTL auto: Supported flash units include SB-900, SB-800, SB-80DX, SB-28DX, SB-28, SB-27, and SB-22S
    Distance-priority manual: Available with SB-900 and SB-800
    Flash mode
    Auto, auto with redeye reduction, fill-flash, auto slow sync, auto slow sync with redeye correction, and rear curtain with slow sync
    Flash compensation
    -3 to +1 EV in increments of 1/3 EV
    Flash-ready indicator
    Lights when built-in flash or optional flash unit such as SB-900, SB-800, SB-600, SB-400, SB-80DX, SB-28DX, or SB-50DX is fully charged; blinks for 3 s after flash is fired at full output
    Accessory shoe
    ISO 518 hot-shoe with sync and data contacts and safety lock
    Nikon Creative Lighting
    System (CLS)
    Advanced Wireless Lighting supported with SB-900, SB-800, or SU-800 as commander; Flash Color Information Communication supported with built-in flash and all CLS-compatible flash units
    Sync terminal
    Sync Terminal Adapter AS-15 (available separately)
    White balance

    Auto, incandescent, fluorescent (7 types), direct sunlight, flash, cloudy, shade, preset manual, all except preset manual with fine tuning.

    Lens servo
    Autofocus (AF): Single-servo AF (AF-S); full-time-servo AF (AF-F)
    Manual focus (MF)
    AF-area mode in Live View
    Face-priority AF, wide-area AF, normal-area AF, subject-tracking AF
    Autofocus in Live View
    Contrast-detect AF anywhere in frame (camera selects focus point automatically when face-priority AF or subject-tracking AF is selected)
    Scene Auto Selector
    Available in auto and auto (flash off) modes
    Movie Metering
    Matrix TTL exposure metering using main image sensor
    Movie Frame size (pixels)
    and frame rate
    1,920 x 1,080 (24p): 24 fps (23.976 fps) 1,280 x 720 (30p): 30 fps (29.97 fps)
    1,280 x 720 (25p): 25 fps 1,280 x 720 (24p): 24 fps (23.976 fps)
    640 x 424 (24p): 24 fps (23.976 fps)
    Movie Maximum recording time
    10 min.
    Movie File format
    Video compression
    H.264/MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding
    Audio recording format
    Linear PCM
    Audio recording device
    Built-in monaural microphone
    Playback function
    Full-frame and thumbnail (4, 9, or 72 images or calendar) playback with playback zoom, movie playback, slide show, histogram display, highlights, auto image rotation, and image comment (up to 36 characters)
    Hi-Speed USB
    Video output
    HDMI output
    Type C mini-pin HDMI connector
    Accessory terminal
    Remote cord: MC-DC2 (available separately)
    GPs unit: GP-1 (available separately)
    Supported languages
    Chinese (Simplified and Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish
    One Rechargeable Li-ion Battery EN-EL14
    AC adapter
    AC adapter EH-5a; requires power connector EP-5A (available separately)
    Tripod socket
    1/4 in. (ISO 1222)
    (W x H x D)
    Approx. 124 x 96 x 74.5 mm (4.9 x 3.8 x 2.9 in.)
    Approx. 455 g / 1lb. (camera body only); Approx. 505 g (1lb. 1.8 oz.) with battery and memory card but without body cap
    0 to 40°C (32 to 104°F)
    Less than 85% (no condensation)
    Supplied accessories
    (may differ by country or area)
    Rechargeable Li-ion Battery EN-EL14, Battery Charger MH-24, Eyepiece Cap DK-5, Rubber Eyecap DK-20,
    Camera Strap AN-DC3, Accessory Shoe Cover BS-1, Body Cap BF-1B, ViewNX 2 CD-ROM, Ferrite Core (2 types)
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